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Cyst enucleation (removal of the entire cyst and cyst wall) is an option but stendra is generally reserved for patients with isolated hepatic cysts rather than PLD. More permanent solutions for symptomatic PLD include widespread cyst fenestration, cyst fenestration with partial resection, and liver transplantation. Cyst fenestration, also referred to as unroofing or deroofing, may be performed laparoscopically or with an open surgical procedure. Fenestration involves wide excision of the protruding portion of the cyst wall, with the edge of the opened cyst sutured to adjacent structures to expose the inner surface to the peritoneum for drainage. Lin et al ( 26) first described open, wide fenestration of superficial cysts, allowing deeper cysts to be unroofed in a sequential, tunneled fashion during the same operation. Several groups have performed this extensive deroofing procedure laparoscopically, noting that the cysts should be punctured prior to fenestration to avoid injury to the often-stretched hepatic and portal veins ( 21, 27). Type A reactions (pharmacological) can be predicted on the basis of the pharmacological actions of the drug and are dose dependent and therefore are readily reversible on reducing the dose or withdrawing treatment with the drug. Type B reactions (idiosyncratic) cannot be predicted from the known pharmacology of the drug. Type A adverse reactions are more common than Type B reactions and account for more than 80% of all reactions. If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. Entries with PhilPapers records have links on their titles. A green link indicates that the item is available online at least partially. This experiment has been authorized by the editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A series of 24 eyes in 23 patients is described showing solitary silent venous papillary loops. These loops are usually associated with a considerable degree of ocular hypertension, presenting when this hypertension is being investigated. They are silent, usually with no previous ocular history, single with a large diameter, affecting veins at the optic disc and not extending into the vitreous. The optic disc is cupped, but usually not more than 0. Fluorescein angiography shows the loops to be competent with no evidence of any other retinal vascular abnormality..